Monday, March 1, 2010

572)Recently Discovered New Element #112 On Periodic Table Named Copernicum After European Renaissance Polish Physicist-Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus

"Islamic doctrine goes further than the other great religions, for it proclaims the presence of the soul, perhaps minute but nevertheless existing in an embryonic state, in all existence in matter, in animals, trees, and space itself. Every individual, every molecule, every atom has its own spiritual relationship with the All-Powerful Soul of God"(Memoirs of Aga Khan III, 1954)

"Tarkib' is composition as in the compounding of elements in the process of making more complex things, that is, of adding together two things to form a synthesis, a compound. Soul composes in the sense of 'tarkib'; it is the animating force that combines the physical elements of the natural universe into beings that move and act. Incorporating is an especially apt word in this instance. It means to turn something into a body, as in 'composing'. But it is actually the conversion of an intellectual object, a thought, into a physical thing. Soul acts by incorporating reason into physical objects, the natural matter of the universe and all the things composed of it"(Abu Yakub Al-Sijistani,10th century Fatimid Ismaili cosmologist, d971CE, from the book, 'Abu Yakub Al-Sijistani: Intellectual Missionary', by Paul Walker)

"Every particle of the Creation has a share of the Command of God, because every creature shares a part of the Command of God through which it has come to be there and by virtue of which it remains in being and the light of the Command of God shines in it. Understand this!"(Abu Yakub Al Sijistani, 10th century Fatimid Ismaili cosmologist, d971, Kashf al-Mahjub("Unveiling of the Hidden"))

"O brother! You asked: What is the [meaning of] `alam [world] and what is that entity to which this name applies? How should we describe the world in its entirety? And how many worlds are there? Explain so that we may recognize. Know, O brother, that the name `alam is derived from [the word] `ilm(knowledge), because the traces of knowledge are evident in [all] parts of the physical world. Thus, we say that the very constitution (nihad) of the world is based on a profound wisdom"(Nasir Khusraw, 11th century Fatimid Ismaili cosmologist-philosopher-poet, from his book "Knowledge and Liberation")

Naming an atomic heavyweight

International body approves the name "copernicium" for element 112

By Rachel Ehrenberg

Thursday, February 25th, 2010

Element 112 in the periodic table has been officially named copernicium after scholar Nicolaus Copernicus (above), whose theory of a sun-centered universe kicked off the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries.

There’s a new heavy in town. Element 112, a “superheavy” element with an atomic mass of 278, has been officially named copernicium, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry announced February 19. It is the heaviest named element to date.

Scientists hope the new element is a stepping stone toward the predicted “island of stability,” a region of the periodic table where researchers expect to find new superheavy elements. These new elements may last longer than a few seconds—most heavy elements are unstable—and might be exploited for purposes still unknown.

“One of the exciting things is, how far can we keep going?” says nuclear chemist Paul Karol of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. “We might find something that is stable and has unusual applications.”

A team led by Sigurd Hofmann of the Center for Heavy Ion Research, or GSI, in Darmstadt, Germany, created copernicium, symbol Cn, in 1996 by bombarding a lead target (each lead atom has 82 protons) with zinc isotopes (with 30 protons). It took a week to create one atom of the stuff, Hofmann notes in a commentary in the February Nature Chemistry. And it took 14 years of follow-up research for Hofmann’s team and other researchers to validate the feat to the satisfaction of the IUPAC.

Forcing two nuclei together is no small task, says John W. Jost, former director of IUPAC, which is headquartered in Research Triangle Park, N.C. It requires breaking through the barrier of electrostatic repulsive forces that act at larger scales in the atom to get to the attractive forces binding the nucleus, and using those forces to lasso two nuclei together. Even once such fusion has occurred, the product decays almost instantaneously. Researchers then must piece together this “decay chain” to figure out what element they created. The whole process is akin to “shooting a piston from outside a barn at an engine inside,” says Jost. “Once in a while it goes in the right spot and you’ve got a piston inside a cylinder, but then the engine falls apart.”

Uranium, with 92 protons, is the heaviest element that appears naturally in significant quantities. Scientists have synthesized all of the heavier, or “transuranic,” elements in the lab. Hofmann and his colleagues, who had previously made elements 107 to 111, used the Universal Linear Accelerator in Darmstadt to make copernicium. The 120-meter-long accelerator shoots ions at about 10 percent the speed of light.

Sitting below zinc, cadmium and mercury in the periodic table, copernicium may behave similarly to these transition metals, which are known for being comfortable with more than one configuration of electrons. Copernicium might be more volatile than mercury but still be liquid at room temperature, Hofmann speculates.

Copernicium is named for the Renaissance astronomer Copernicus, who is best known for turning the earth-centered view of the universe inside out by presenting the first fully conceived theory of a planetary system centered on the sun rather than the Earth. The beauty of the name, Hofmann notes, is that Copernicus’ concept of an attractive central object holding smaller ones in orbit around it is much like an atom writ large.

Easy Nash

In Shia Islam, intellect is a key component of faith. Intellect allows us to understand the creation of God: Aga Khan IV(2008)
The Qur'an itself repeatedly recommends Muslims to become better educated in order better to understand God's creation: Aga Khan IV(2007)
The Quran tells us that signs of Allah's Sovereignty are found in the contemplation of His Creation: Aga Khan IV(2007)
This notion of the capacity of the human intellect to understand and to admire the creation of Allah will bring you happiness in your everyday lives: Aga Khan IV(2007)
Islam, eminently logical, placing the greatest emphasis on knowledge, purports to understand God's creation: Aga Khan IV(2006)
The Holy Qu'ran's encouragement to study nature and the physical world around us gave the original impetus to scientific enquiry among Muslims: Aga Khan IV(1985)
The first and only thing created by God was the Intellect(Aql): Prophet Muhammad(circa 632CE)